Wave overtopping along this frontage is a significant risk to people, vehicles, and the Spa buildings. On average two to five people are killed in the UK each year due to wave action.
Wave overtopping at the Spa is currently estimated at 300 times higher than the European recommended overtopping rate for safe conditions for pedestrians.
With mean sea level expected to rise by up to 1m over the next 100 years, wave overtopping problems are expected to increase significantly if nothing is done to manage the defences, potentially reaching over 700 times the recommended safe overtopping limit.
Wave overtopping also causes damage to the promenade and seawall, increasing the maintenance needed.